Behaviorism: a learning theory popularized in the mid-20th century, it treats learning as a response to stimulus and it conditions students to properly react to stimuli. The brain’s processes are not considered and viewed as a “black box”.

Bias: a natural outcome of the fact that people have different experiences, life views, and ideologies.

Child pornography: any pornographic or illicit depiction of a child, and viewing, sharing, or owning child pornography is a felony in the United States.

Cognitivism: a learning theory that focuses on brain functions and how information is processed, stored, retrieved, and applied.

Compliance: legal and ethical requirements of technology use in contrast to their pragmatic use. One of the four areas of belief and value that guide teachers and institutions in their technology integration practices.

Connectivism: a learning theory that believes that learning need not be isolated to the mind, but becoming a learned and capable citizen in a digital society requires learners to become connected with one another in such a way that they can make use of the network as an extension of their own mind and body.

Constructivism: a learning theory that considers individual and social factors by holding that learning is constructed by learners on top of previous experience, attitudes, and beliefs.

Constructionism: a learning theory in which students construct artifacts in the outside world that support and reflect their internal construction of knowledge.

Control: our circle of control is often smaller than our circle of influence. Teachers should know what is in their control and be wise about what they share via technology, because it can easily go beyond their circle of control.

Cyberbullying: a form of bullying that uses internet and other technologies as a means for perpetrating bullying behaviors.

Digital Footprint: The tracks that you leave online; they include your profile information, things you post, what you share, who you follow, what you like, etc.

Data Persistence: the fact that social media posts and information from the past is still accessible for others to view. It’s essential that teachers know what exists and control what is viewable to others.

Domain: the primary identifier of a website that is made up of a website name, such as facebook, google, or twitter, followed by a domain type (or top-level domain), such as .com, .edu, or .org. Domains are also often accompanied by subdomains which precede the domain name, the most common of which is www, standing for World Wide Web. Together, these three identifiers make a fully qualified domain, such as, and allow the technologies that connect devices together through the Internet to find the specific resource that a user is looking for.

Facility: ease at which a new technology can be learned, implemented, or managed at the teacher- or student-level. One of the four areas of belief and value that guide teachers and institutions in their technology integration practices.

Fair Use: holds that copyright-restricted works can be used for educational purposes without permission under certain conditions. The four conditions are Nature of Use, Type of Work, Amount Used, and Commercial Impact.

Hacking: when a person or program bypasses or tricks normal security procedures in order to gain access to a site or service.

Institutionalization: infrastructural compatibility, cost, lifespan, and management scale of new technologies. One of the four areas of belief and value that guide teachers and institutions in their technology integration practices.

Malware: malicious software is any software or app that is designed to steal your personal information or cause your electronic devices to behave improperly.

Media Literacy: the ability to access, evaluate, and create media in a variety of formats.

Moral Turpitude: a clause often in teacher contracts, that basically means “anything else that you might do that the community thinks is wrong is probably wrong, and the district can punish you accordingly.” Moral turpitude is generally not clearly defined, so teachers need to learn about the culture of their district and community to guide their actions.

Open Licenses: a means for openly sharing content while at the same time preserving desired rights to the author. Open licenses find a nice balance between the restrictions of copyright and the unfettered freedoms of public domain, making them a good option for anyone desiring to share their work with others.

Open: gratis + libre. In the context of openly licensed materials or open educational resources (OER), gratis means that content and resources are provided at no cost. Libre means that you are free to do what you want with these resources.

Personal Learning Environment (PLE): an environment that educators create by exposing themselves to information that is always updated and of practical value to their work. It may include following particular blogs, RSS feeds, news sites, social media feeds, podcasts, and video channels.

Phishing: sensitive personal information can be exploited by those with malicious intent – play on the word “fishing,” because it implies the use of bait to trap a victim. Phishing scams take many forms, but the most common form is through an email and fake website combination.

Professional Learning Network (PLN): finding ways to connect with other professionals via social networking sites, blogs, or video conferencing. Educators can come with questions or concerns, or create a network to provide themselves with fresh insights on how to improve their practice, share resources, and improve morale.

PIC-RAT: a technology integration model whose framework assumes that there are two foundational questions that a teacher must ask about any technology use in their classrooms. These include:

  1. What is the students’ relationship to the technology? (PIC: Passive, Interactive, Creative)
  2. How is the teacher’s use of technology influencing traditional practice? (RAT: Replace, Amplify, Transform; cf. Hughes, Thomas, & Scharber, 2006)

This framework looks at the intersection of these two questions (e.g., PR as a passive, replacing technology like a basic PowerPoint presentation or CT as a creative, transforming technology like having students create their own English blog for peers and parents to interact with).

Proof: efficiency or efficacy of a technology to help improve student learning. One of the four areas of belief and value that guide teachers and institutions in their technology integration practices.

Public Domain: in the US, a technical term referring to works that are not subject to copyright protection. Applies to (1) old works for which the copyright has expired; (2) exempt works that may not be copyrighted or that were created under certain conditions; and (3) any works that have been released to the public domain by their authors.

RAT: a technology integration model that views that technology is either used to replace a traditional approach to teaching (without any discernible difference on student outcomes), to amplify the learning that was occurring, or to transform learning in ways that were not possible without the technology (Hughes, Thomas, & Scharber, 2006). RAT is used more often by researchers.

Royalty Free:  essentially just another way of saying copyrighted, but the material might be able to be used in some very limited manner (e.g., print an image up to ten times) without paying a fee.

SAMR: a technology integration model similar to RAT, but stands for substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition. SAMR is used more often by teachers.

Technology integration: the meaningful implementation of technology in educational settings to achieve learning goals.

TPACK: a technology integration model that is useful for understanding technology’s role in the educational process and the most commonly used technology integration model amongst educational researchers. It emphasizes that teachers must understand how technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge interact with one another to produce a learning experience that is meaningful for students in specific situations.


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K-12 Technology Integration by Royce Kimmons is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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